1. Jaime stated that Littlefinger's Valyrian dagger changed hands at the tourney of Joffrey's 12th name day, and that Robert showed it afterwards to him to salt his wounds.
The apparent conclusion of this would be that Robert won the dagger.
Thus, can we just assume that Jaime meant this, or is it still possible that he didn't exclude the possibility that Robert could have borrowed the dagger from the real winner as he showed it to Jaime?
Robert won the dagger by betting against Jaime... or at least that's what Jaime is saying. "Look at this nice dagger I won because you fell off your horse, ha ha."
2. Is the _end_ of the chapter in which Dany travels from Pentos to the other side of the Dothraki sea (pg. 190-199) chronologically after Jon's first chapter at the Wall (pages 148-159, all hardcover edition)?
Well, I haven't had time to check this... but usually the chapters later in the book take place after those that come before... or at worst, simultaneous. Admittedly there are overlaps when I have chapters like Dany's crossing the Dothraki Sea, which cover many months, in between chapters that cover only a day.
[I asked when Balon Greyjoy decided to attack the north, if Ned is really dead and if Robb won't have a POV in the series.]
No comment on the rest.