The Citadel: Concordance

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11. Flora and Fauna of the Seven Kingdoms


11.1. Trees
  • Ironwood trees are black-barked (I: 4. II: 262)
  • Sentinel trees have grey-green needles (I: 6)
  • Redwoods seem to be a southern tree(I: 18)
  • Oaks (I: 18)
  • Weirwoods have white bark, red leaves with five points resembling hands, and red sap. Even in the North finding more than two or three together is rare, but beyond the Wall groves of many weirwoods exist (I: 19, 435. II: 499. SSM: 1)
  • The last weirwoods were cut down in the south a thousand years ago, save at the Isle of Faces (I: 19)
  • Lemon trees (I: 25)
  • Peach trees (I: 34)
  • Evergreen (I: 100)
  • Black briers (I: 100)
  • Pomegranate trees (I: 172)
  • Dates (I: 211. IV: 303)
  • Elm (I: 214)
  • Alder (I: 214)
  • Black cottonwood (I: 214)
  • Blood melons (I: 234)
  • Plum trees (I: 251)
  • Pines (I: 310)
  • Spruces (I: 310)
  • Aspens (I: 378)
  • Blood oranges (I: 397)
  • Fig trees (I: 414)
  • Chestnut trees (I: 569)
  • Apricot trees (I: 599)
  • Cherry trees (I: 602)
  • Ash (THK: 459)
  • Birch (THK: 513)
  • Acorn trees (II: 64)
  • Pecan trees (II: 90)
  • Willows (II: 101)
  • Sandalwood (II: 174)
  • Broadleaf trees, whose leaves turn yellow as they begin to turn (II: 373)
  • Hawthorns (II: 486)
  • Soldier pines (II: 520, 531)
  • Beech (III: 19)
  • Lemons, olives, and pomegranates come chiefly from Dorne (III: 149)
  • Yew (III: 192)
  • Oak and ash trees can be found in the Haunted Forest, along with sentinels and weirwoods (III: 336)
  • Cherrywood (III: 358)
  • Prune trees (III: 422)
  • Crabapple trees (III: 494)
  • Dornish yew is used to make longbows (III: 616)
  • Almond trees (III: 676)
  • Plum trees in Dorne (III: 743)
  • Blackthorn (III: 784)
  • Scrub oaks (III: 915)
  • Blood orange trees in Dorne (IV: 30)
  • Lime trees in Dorne (IV: 41)
  • Sandbeggars, a thorny tree in the drylands of Dorne, twisted and gnarled (IV: 308)
  • Willow trees growing beside the Greenblood in Dorne (IV: 309)
11.2. Plants
  • Roses (I: 34)
  • Blackberries (I: 65)
  • In the Neck, purple flowers named poison kisses, which cause rashes if they touch skin (I: 118)
  • Lilacs (I: 146)
  • Turnips (I: 208)
  • Melons (I: 211)
  • Nightshade (I: 211)
  • Moonblooms (I: 211)
  • Smokeberry vines (I: 214)
  • Dark red blooms of dragon's breath (I: 214)
  • Blueberries (I: 225)
  • Sourleaf is chewed, and turns one's mouth and teeth red like blood (I: 239)
  • Mint (I: 250)
  • Sweetgrass (I: 250)
  • Strawberries (I: 250)
  • Spinach (I: 251)
  • Garlic (I: 251)
  • Peas (I: 343)
  • Beans (I: 343)
  • Blue roses (I: 355)
  • Chickpeas (I: 372)
  • Ghostskin, a kind of moss (I: 499)
  • Blue winter roses (I: 526)
  • Sourleaf is sold in bales (II: 23)
  • Chewing sourleaf helps take the edge off of pain (II: 26)
  • Wheat (I: 303)
  • Corn (I: 303)
  • Barley (I: 303)
  • Red fennel (II: 91)
  • Squash (II: 91)
  • Briars (II: 103, 222)
  • Sweetcorn (II: 103)
  • Wild radish (II: 105)
  • Cabbage (II: 158)
  • Mulberries (II: 195)
  • Cloves (II: 238)
  • Leeks (II: 238)
  • Beets (II: 238)
  • Huge red onions (II: 238)
  • Nettles (II: 246)
  • Wild white roses (II: 262)
  • Gillyflowers (II: 271)
  • Carrots (II: 238)
  • Blue coldsnaps and bright scarlet frostfires are autumn wildflowers (II: 539)
  • Piper's grass is russet and gold in color (II: 539)
  • Wild roses (III: 12)
  • Tansy and goldencup are flowers (III: 12)
  • Wild onions can be found in the North (III: 105)
  • Moon tea is used by maesters and wildling woods witches to abort children. It is made of tansy, mint, wormwood, a spoon of honey, and a drop of pennyroyal (III: 171, 913)
  • Wild wheat (III: 193)
  • Tansy tea appears to be used by the smallfolk to induce abortions (III: 252)
  • Mustard salve is used by the maesters for healing (III: 366)
  • Kingscopper is a healing herb (III: 366)
  • Licorice (III: 421)
  • Wild wheat (III: 466)
  • Goldenrod (III: 696)
  • Flowering thornbushes (III: 814)
  • Gorse (III: 839, 915)
  • Wormwood (III: 913)
  • Pennyroyal (III: 913)
  • Bracken (III: 915)
  • Thistle (III: 915)
  • Sedge (III: 915)
  • Hemp (IV: 552)
  • Devilgrass (TSS: 79)
  • Goathead (TSS: 81)
  • Thornbushes in the riverlands (TMK: 653)
  • Wine is made in the riverlands (TMK: 679)
11.3. Creatures
  • Rough-coated, small garrons are used by the Night's Watch (I: 2, etc.)
  • Knights use heavy destriers (I: 2, etc.)
  • Sables (I: 2)
  • Bears (I: 30)
  • Sparrows (I: 68)
  • There are wild aurochs in the lands north of the Trident (I: 102, 116)
  • Lizard-lions (alligators or crocodiles) live in the deep swamps and slow streams of the Neck (I: 118. II: 321)
  • Shadowcats, which are between a mountain lion and tiger in size (I: 124. SSM: 1)
  • One hundred gold dragons are far too much for a wolf pelt (I: 131)
  • Particularly intelligent ravens can mimic a few human words (I: 158)
  • Ravens are used to carry messages (I: 201, 334)
  • Nightingales, at least in the area of the Marches and the Reach (I: 248, 257. III: 252. IV: 3)
  • Sometimes knights might use coursers (I: 263, 570)
  • Shadowcats have thick black fur with white stripings (I: 280, 283)
  • Black foxes (I: 299)
  • In the Mountains of the Moon, surefooted and shaggy mountain horses are often used (I: 305)
  • Black squirrels (I: 336)
  • White harts (I: 336)
  • Turkeys (I: 342)
  • Seals (I: 475)
  • Wildcats (I: 478)
  • The bogs of the Neck teem with snakes (I: 499)
  • Badgers (I: 509. II: 533. TSS: 144)
  • Most ravens will eat great, but they prefer flesh (I: 552)
  • Oxen (I: 566)
  • Snow shrikes (I: 583)
  • Horses called stots (THK: 458)
  • Riding palfreys (THK: 458)
  • Dragonflies (THK: 464)
  • White ravens with black eyes rather than the albino red, bred in the Citadel of the Maesters which fly to herald the change of seasons. They are larger and more clever than other ravens, and are known to mimic words (II: 2, 4, 5)
  • Elkhounds can get to be as big as a fullgrown direwolf (II: 80)
  • Quail (II: 91)
  • Rabbits (II: 103)
  • Poisonous snakes (II: 107)
  • Goshawks (II: 120)
  • Gyrfalcon (II: 120)
  • Cod (II: 124)
  • Magpies (II: 130)
  • Seals (II: 134)
  • Water snakes in the waters of the God's Eye and the river that flows from it (II: 156)
  • Lantern bugs have lights which flicker on and off (II: 159)
  • Otters (II: 159)
  • Mastiffs (II: 184)
  • Lamprey (II: 188)
  • A lioness (II: 211)
  • Black swans (II: 214)
  • Whitefish (II: 238)
  • Herring (II: 238)
  • Salmon (II: 238)
  • Lobster (II: 238)
  • Large, lumbering dray horses used to pull wagons (II: 261)
  • Shaggy ponies from Harlaw (II: 282)
  • White foxes (II: 394)
  • Magpies (II: 446)
  • Black bears can be caught in the riverlands (II: 494)
  • Red deer (II: 530. TSS: 113)
  • Elk (II: 530)
  • Shadowcats can smell blood six miles away. They'll eat every shred of meat from a kill and crack the bones to get at the marrow (II: 543)
  • Shadowcats tend to not attack living men unless very starved (II: 557)
  • Common wolves in the lands of the Trident are large, grey-brown animals (II: 655)
  • There are horses bred specifically for the needs of the hunt (II: 659)
  • Quail (III: 15)
  • Tiny crabs can be found on a spear of the merling king at low tide (II: 55)
  • Dolphins and flying fish exist in the waters of the narrow sea (III: 87)
  • Squirrels (III: 100)
  • Kites (III: 100)
  • There are plenty of frogs north of the Neck (III: 104, 105)
  • Walruses (III: 172)
  • Merlins and peregrines are used by noblemen and women in hawking (III: 183)
  • Herons (III: 183)
  • Using an eagle for hawking is very rare (III: 183)
  • Krakens are said to be so large that they can pull down great Ibbenese whalers (III: 216)
  • Wild goats can be found in the mountains of the North (IIII: 277)
  • Great black mastiffs (III: 334)
  • Lean wolfhounds (III: 334)
  • Black-and-white sheepdogs (III: 334)
  • Shaggy brindled dogs with long yellow teeth (III: 334)
  • The fabled sand steeds of Dorne are smaller than proper warhorses and cannot bear such weight of armor, but it is said that they can run for a day and a night and another day and never tire. They are all slim and swift with long necks and narrow beautiful heads and their coats are red, gold, or even pale grey or black as well. One example is black with a mane and tail the color of fire, which may be natural or dyed (III: 431)
  • Rounseys, a type of horse (III: 445)
  • Cave lions (III: 506)
  • King crabs (III: 524)
  • River pike (III: 574)
  • Silverfish (III: 589)
  • Sea eagles (III: 603)
  • Heron (III: 676)
  • Partridge (III: 676)
  • Cave bears in the Mountains of the Moon (III: 732)
  • Scorpions can be found in Dorne (III: 747. TSS: 101)
  • Feral sand dogs can be found in Dorne (TSS: 101, 103)
  • Giant elk and aurochs could be found in some areas of the Reach before the Conquest (TSS: 113)
  • Great, brown tree cats can be found in the Reach (TSS: 113)
  • A swift, larger courser crossed with Dornish sand steed for endurance is a very fine and costly riding horse (TSS: 157)
  • A golden sand steed with a mane like fine white silk (IV: 38)
  • Pricklefish (IV: 164)
  • It's said that men on Skagos ride great shaggy unicorns to war (IV: 220)
  • Seals, sea lions, walruses, and spotted whales, the wolves of the sea, are familiar in the Iron Islands (IV: 271)
  • Dornish sand steeds can run for hours after other horses tire, it's said, but even they need water (IV: 298)
  • Poisonous vipers in the Dornish desert (IV: 298)
  • Terns, sandpipers, frogs, crickets, and foxes can be found in the wetlands northwest of Maidenpool (IV: 371)
  • Storks (IV: 405, 460)
  • Enormous goats, possibly one-horned, in a remote area of the North (V: 46)
11.4. Animals beyond the Wall
  • Adult direwolves are as large as a pony, twice as big as a large hound. They have not been seen south of the Wall in more than 200 years (I: 15)
  • Mammoths are said to roam (I: 175)
  • Snow bears as large as aurochs (I: 175)
  • Direwolves upset horses, and dogs are so frightened by them that they refuse to use the same space (I: 123, 208)
  • Direwolves are proportionally larger headed and longer legged compared to regular wolves, and their snout and jaws are leaner and more pronounced (I: 339)
  • The wildlings have horses (II: 560)
  • Vast herds of elk (I: 654)
  • It's said that direwolves once roamed the north in packs of a hundred or more and feared neither man nor mammoth. This was long ago, however (II: 654)
  • Wildling horses are surefooted (II: 695)
  • Bears (III: 1)
  • Oxen (III: 11)
  • Mules (III: 11)
  • Weasels (III: 75)
  • Giant elk once roamed throughout the Seven Kingdoms in the times of the First Men, but now they only survive beyond the Wall. One stands as tall as ten feet at the shoulders, with antlers near as wide (III: 78, 536. TSS: 113)
  • A direwolf little more than a year and a half old is half again as large as two well-fed and strong adult wolves (III: 101)
  • Mammoths are so huge that their great curving tusks are higher than a man (III: 167)
  • There are whales in the waters beyond the Wall (III: 167)
  • Snow bears can stand some thirteen feet tall on their hind legs (III: 171)
  • There are wildlings on the Frozen Shore who seem to hunt walruses, for they have chariots made of their bones (III: 172)
  • A mammoth can pluck an armored knight from a saddle with his trunk and throw him some forty feet (III: 841)
  • Direwolves are larger than real world direwolves (SSM: 1)
  • Direwolves can breed with regular wolves (SSM: 1)